supervisory structures influence community violence rates, the effects of father absence persist even after taking these factors into consideration. Theoretical perspectives Psychoanalytic theory. The literature on father absence is frequently criticized for its use of cross-sectional data and methods that fail to take account of possible omitted variable bias and reverse causality. This shows that the absence of a father is more significant to the core male gender identity through the pre-Oedipal, Oedipal and adolescent stages. However, the integration of Kirkpatrick's (1998) and Clinton and Sibcy's (2002) work and the specific application of these theoretical constructs to the father absent population is the new contribution to the field. Although these studies varied in the use of analytical approaches and found different effect … We must realize there is a father absence crisis in america and begin to raise more involved, responsible, and committed fathers. Father absence and fatherlessness is a worldwide phenomenon and a worldwide tendency in communities (Freeks 2013:3; Freeks 2016). FATHER ABSENCE AND YOUTH INCARCERATION Cynthia C. Harper, Ph.D.1 Sara S. McLanahan, Ph.D.2 1School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco 2Center for Child-Wellbeing, Princeton University *Correspondence: The correspondence author is Cynthia Harper, UCSF, Box 0744, 3333 California Street, Suite 335, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0744. Published in the Annual Review of Sociology, "The Causal Effects of Father Absence" examined studies that focused on the relationship between father absence and four outcomes for children: educational attainment, mental health, relationship formation and stability, and labor force success. PY - 2002. (Shill 145) The absence of a father during the pre-Oedipal period seems to force the son into the Oedipal period sooner than would naturally happen if the father were present. The presence of other males in the community and co-resident grandparents does mitigate some of the negative effects of father absence, especially in areas where father absence is particularly acute. The literature on father absence is frequently criticized for its use of cross-sectional data and methods that fail to take account of possible omitted variable bias and reverse causality. Consequently, there is a “father factor” in nearly all of the societal issues facing America today. You can find more statistics here and by using Father Facts 7. Tel: 415-502-4092 The constructs of father absence, attachment theory, and God have been examined individually. Sigmund Freud postulated that early in life, a young infant's primary attachment object would be its mother because the mother fulfills the infant's oral desires through feeding. life history theory, girls’ reproductive strategies should be flexible and thus calibrated to be contingent on contextual cues. Research was done in twenty one countries of the world i.e. Firstly we will summarise the family background literature and we will then put forward two alternative developmental routes of influence on, with different implications for, fa- cial attraction in young adulthood. That is, the optimal reproductive strategy might be to attend carefully to environmental conditions early in life (e.g., investing father vs. absent father) Second, we test the proposition that father absence may masculinise children’s developing sex roles and behaviour by compar-ing groups on multiple traits which are known to show sex differences in adults. FATHER ABSENCE AND YOUTH INCARCERATION Cynthia C. Harper, Ph.D.1 Sara S. McLanahan, Ph.D.2 1School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco 2Center for Child-Wellbeing, Princeton University *Correspondence: The correspondence author is Cynthia Harper, UCSF, Box 0744, 3333 California Street, Suite 335, San Francisco, CA, 94143-0744. Tel: 415-502-4092 T1 - Evolutionary theory and reproductive responses to father absence: implications of kin selection and the reproductive returns to mating and parenting effort. Y1 - 2002. Physical differences Timing of puberty and reproductive behaviour. Evolutionary research into the impacts of father absence on offspring has largely fallen into two camps, which one might roughly characterize as developmental psychology versus behavioral ecologically, respectively, and investigated two sets of outcomes: offspring reproductive outcomes and … between father absence, physiology and gender development. N2 - Evolutionary theorists are in the business of seeking ultimate explanations for behavior. AU - Waynforth, David.